Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) retrovirally transduced with genes encoding murine interleukin (IL)-12 stably expressed bioactive IL-12 protein at high levels. Intratumoral injection with IL-12 gene-modified BM-DCs resulted in regression of day 7 established weakly immunogenic tumors (MCA205, B16, and D122). This antitumor effect was substantially better than that of IL-12-transduced syngeneic fibroblasts or nontransduced BM-DCs. Furthermore, intratumoral injection with IL-12-transduced dendritic cells (DCs) induced specific TH1-type responses to the tumor in regional lymph nodes and spleen at levels greater than those of IL-12-transduced fibroblasts or nontransduced BM-DCs. Trafficking studies confirmed that intratumorally injected IL-12-transduced DCs, but not fibroblasts, could migrate to the draining lymph node to the same extent as nontransduced BM-DCs. This strategy designed to deliver genetically modified DCs to tumor sites is associated with systemic and therapeutic antitumor immunity and is an alternative approach to those that use delivery of DCs loaded with tumor antigen. These results support the clinical application of IL-12 gene-modified DCs in patients with cancer.