Human glioblastomas (five of five), the most malignant astroglial-derived tumors, specifically express a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is recognized by monoclonal antibody 9.2.27 and localized to the glioma cell surface, proliferating endothelial cells, and the perivascular extracellular matrix within the tumor bed. In contrast, the expression of this proteoglycan in normal adult neocortex and white matter is limited to the smooth muscle of small arteries, while normal glia, endothelial cells, and endothelial cell basement membranes are nonreactive. Moreover, two anaplastic astrocytomas, representing medium-grade astroglial-derived tumors, fail to react with monoclonal antibody 9.2.27. In culture, glioblastoma and capillary brain endothelial cells specifically synthesize a 250-kDa core protein and a high-molecular-mass chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, recognized by monoclonal antibody 9.2.27. These data suggest a correlation between the expression of this chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan on proliferating brain capillary endothelial cells and the malignant phenotype of astroglial cells. The prominent perivascular localization of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan makes it a marker for both proliferating brain capillary endothelial cells and the most malignant transformed astroglial cells, thus providing an ideal target for the immunotherapy of glioblastoma.