The infusion of 1-deamino-(8-D-arginine)-vasopressin (DDAVP) causes not only an elevation in factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIR:Ag), but also a marked elevation of plasma von Willebrand antigen II (vWAgII). vWAgII reaches a peak concentration at 60 min and is elevated 3-8-fold over basal levels in normal individuals and individuals with type I, IIA, and IIB von Willebrand's disease. As the mechanism of hemostatic alteration brought about by DDAVP might be due to release of endothelial cell proteins, endothelial cell cultures were performed. The cultures demonstrated synthesis and secretion of vWAgII, as evidenced by the incorporation of 35S-methionine into the vWAgII molecule. Thus, vWAgII, like FVIIIR:Ag, is an endothelial cell protein.