The immunoblotting technique was applied to the study of Factor XII (F.XII) in plasma. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of whole plasma followed by electroblotting of the electropherograms to nitrocellulose (NC) membranes and immunologic detection by a double antibody technique was used. 125I-F.XII was transferred to the NC membrane in amounts proportional to the amount applied to the gel provided that a constant amount of carrier protein was present. Based on this, a quantitative assay was developed using either normal plasma or F.XII dilutions in F.XII-deficient plasma as standards. The measurement of F.XII antigen by immunoblotting was reproducible and gave values similar to those obtained by radial immunodiffusion. Two normal plasma pools contained 26 and 29 micrograms/ml of F.XII according to the immunoblotting assay. Compared to other immunoassays, immunoblotting has the advantage of directly estimating the apparent molecular weight (MW) of the protein of interest. Thus, we could confirm the normal apparent MW (80,000) of a F.XII-like molecule previously isolated from a cross reacting material (CRM)-positive F.XII-deficient plasma. None of eight CRM-negative F.XII-deficient plasmas showed an 80,000 MW immunoreactive molecule. However, five of these eight plasmas had a faint autoradiographic band at 115,000 MW that was similarly seen in only three out of 43 individual normal plasmas. The nature of this 115,000 MW band remains to be defined.