The chimeric peptide galparan (galanin(1-13)-mastoparan) induced the in vivo release of acetylcholine in the frontal cortex of rats when injected intracerebroventricularly, i.c.v. The ACh-releasing effects of galparan are reversible, dose-dependent, and not exerted at galanin receptors or at sites where mastoparan acts. Pertussis toxin pretreatment (i.c.v.) of the rats for 96 h prior to injection of galparan or of mastoparan completely prevented the ACh-releasing effects of both galparan and mastoparan. It appears that galparan acts at a novel site in the release of ACh in the cerebral cortex in vivo.