The glmS riboswitch belongs to the family of regulatory RNAs that provide feedback regulation of metabolic genes. It is also a ribozyme that self-cleaves upon binding glucosamine-6-phosphate, the product of the enzyme encoded by glmS. The ligand concentration dependence of intracellular self-cleavage kinetics was measured for the first time in a yeast model system and unexpectedly revealed that this riboswitch is subject to inhibition as well as activation by hexose metabolites. Reporter gene experiments in Bacillus subtilis confirmed that this riboswitch integrates positive and negative chemical signals in its natural biological context. Contrary to the conventional view that a riboswitch responds to just a single cognate metabolite, our new model proposes that a single riboswitch integrates information from an array of chemical signals to modulate gene expression based on the overall metabolic state of the cell.