Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human health. Since resistance to the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics is most commonly caused by enzymatic modification, we developed a high-throughput microarray platform for directly assaying resistance enzyme activity on aminoglycosides. After modification, the array can be hybridized with the therapeutic target, a bacterial rRNA A-site mimic, to study the effect that modification has on binding. Such studies will help identify important factors that contribute to high-affinity recognition of therapeutic targets and low-affinity recognition of and modification by resistance enzymes. This platform may also be useful for screening chemical libraries to discover new antibiotics that evade resistance.