Many receptors activate phospholipase Cgamma1 or -gamma2. To assess the role of PLCgamma2, we derived enzyme-deficient mice. The mice are viable but have decreased mature B cells, a block in pro-B cell differentiation, and B1 B cell deficiency. IgM receptor-induced Ca2+ flux and proliferation to B cell mitogens are absent. IgM, IgG2a, and IgG3 levels are reduced, and T cell-independent antibody production is absent. The similarity to Btk- or Blnk-deficient mice demonstrates that PLCgamma2 is downstream in Btk/Blnk signaling. FcRgamma signaling is also defective, resulting in a loss of collagen-induced platelet aggregation, mast cell FcepsilonR function, and NK cell FcgammaRIII and 2B4 function. The results define a signal transduction pathway broadly utilized by immunoglobulin superfamily receptors.