Two murine monoclonal antibodies to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a rabbit anti-N-terminal peptide antibody and human auto-antibody to PCNA reacted with the auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase delta from fetal calf thymus following SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, confirming the identity of PCNA and the auxiliary protein. Undenatured auxiliary protein was immunoprecipitated by the human autoantibody, but not by the monoclonal antibodies, which were raised to SDS-denatured PCNA, nor by the anti-N-terminal peptide antibody, suggesting that the epitopes recognized by both the monoclonal antibodies and the anti-peptide antibody are not exposed in the native protein. The human anti-PCNA autoantibody neutralized the activity of the auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase delta, but did not inhibit the activity of pol delta itself. The ability of pol delta to utilize template/primers containing long stretches of single-stranded template was inhibited by the anti-PCNA autoantibody, whereas the activity of pol alpha on such templates was not affected, confirming the specificity of the auxiliary protein for pol delta. The ability of PCNA, a cell cycle-regulated protein, to regulate the activity of pol delta suggests a central role for pol delta in cellular DNA replication.