Conditionally replicating human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (crHIV-2) vectors can compete with HIV-1 for packaging in HIV-1-infected cells, indicating that the mobilization of vectors could selectively target as well as protect reservoirs susceptible to HIV-1 infection. The incorporation of HIV-1-specific antiviral transgenes in crHIV-2 vectors, although increasing the direct antiviral effect, may decrease mobilization and transmission to surrounding cells. To investigate how HIV-1-specific catalytic RNA cassettes (ribozymes) affect this balance between antiviral activity and mobilization, crHIV-2 vectors shown to display anti-HIV-1 activity were packaged by HIV-2 and used to transduce cells previously infected with HIV-1 or to transduce uninfected cells that were subsequently challenged with HIV-1. Vector mobilization was greater when HIV-1-infected cells were transduced with vector than when transduced cells were infected with HIV-1, and approximately 3-fold lower vector production was observed in cultures transduced with vectors expressing anti-HIV-1 ribozymes. Vector and antiviral effects could be transferred to new cultures by passaging supernatants to fresh cultures. No evidence of recombination with HIV-1 was observed. Vector mobilization and protection from HIV-1 infection were also demonstrated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data suggest that strategies employing vector mobilization for HIV-1 gene therapy should use vectors with maximal antiviral potency, despite resulting reductions in mobilization of the vector.