The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family of single extracellular immunoglobulin receptors includes both activating and inhibitory isoforms whose ligands are unknown. TREM-1 activation amplifies the Toll-like receptor initiated responses to invading pathogens allowing the secretion of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Hence, TREM-1 amplifies the inflammation induced by both bacteria and fungi, and thus represents a potential therapeutic target. We report the crystal structure of the human TREM-1 extracellular domain at 1.47 A resolution. The overall fold places it within the V-type immunoglobulin domain family and reveals close homology with Ig domains from antibodies, T-cell receptors and other activating receptors, such as NKp44. With the additional use of analytical ultracentrifugation and 1H NMR spectroscopy of both human and mouse TREM-1, we have conclusively demonstrated the monomeric state of this extracellular ectodomain in solution and, presumably, of the TREM family in general.