Site-specific titration curves for 12 histidine residues in carbon monoxy sperm whale myoglobin (MbCO) have been determined from two-dimensional (2D) double quantum NMR experiments. Eight of these histidine residues are observed to titrate over the accessible pH range, and pK(a) values have been determined; bounds on the titration midpoints of the remaining four histidines are also reported. Results for residues 48, 81, and 119 differ significantly from those estimated from earlier, one-dimensional studies, but they are in good agreement with values recently determined for metaquomyoglobin. These experimental values (plus those determined earlier for tyrosine titrations) are compared to predictions from crystal structures of myoglobin using a numerical Poisson-Boltzmann model and a Monte Carlo treatment of the multiple-site titration. An extension of existing models is described that accounts for alternate tautomers for histidines. Calculations are reported using several choices for radii and charges, and for five crystal structures, in order to assess the sensitivity of the results to details of the calculations. In general, the agreement between calculated and observed titration behavior suggests that this theoretical model captures much of the electrostatic behavior in this system, even though it ignores conformational fluctuations and the differences in mean structures that may exist between crystal and solution. Interactions among titrating groups are often important; in general, these interactions lead to more gradual individual site titrations (the mean Hill coefficient is about 0.8), and in several cases the interactions are so strong that two side chains need to be considered as a unit and single residues may participate in two-step titrations. It is suggested that histidines involved in such two-step titrations and carboxylic acid residues with abnormally low pK(a) values in the native conformation may be involved in the acid-induced partial unfolding of MbCO.