Monoclonal antibody II-6-18 recognizes a serogroup-1-specific Legionella pneumophila antigenic determinant which has been shown to be virulence-associated. We previously reported the physicochemical characterization by means of a quantitative fluorometric assay of monoclonal antibody II-6-18 binding to L. pneumophila, and its implications concerning the nature of the antigen. We describe here the isolation and the purification of the antigen by chemical and immunological methods, followed by its partial chemical analysis. The results demonstrate that the epitope--an immunodominant carbohydrate which includes a fucosamine-like residue--is part of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It is localized in the polysaccharide moiety of the LPS which contains KDO, rhamnose, mannose, glucosamine and an unidentified aminodideoxyhexose X1, but no heptose. The aminodideoxyhexose X1 could be fucosamine and is probably the immunodominant residue in the epitope, localized, at least partially, at the end of the polysaccharide chain.