A 46-kDa receptor, coxsackievirus-adenovirus (Ad) receptor (CAR), mediates cell attachment of a number of different Ad serotypes; however, not all Ad serotypes utilize this receptor for infection. Moreover, the precise amino acid sequences in the Ad fiber protein that mediate cell attachment have yet to be identified. We investigated the interaction of subgroup D Ads with human ocular cells. Ad serotype 37 (Ad37), a virus associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, but not a closely related virus serotype, Ad19p, exhibited preferential binding to and infection of human conjunctival cells. A single amino acid substitution in the Ad19p fiber distal domain (knob), Glu240 to Lys, conferred binding to conjunctival cells, while the reverse substitution in the Ad37 fiber abrogated cell binding. These findings provide new information on the fiber sequences that regulate Ad host cell tropism.