C1 inhibitor (C1INH), the major plasma inhibitor of activated C1, kallikrein, and activated Hageman factor, may be an important factor in limiting inflammatory injury mediated by the complement and contact systems. C1INH is thought to be synthesized primarily in the liver; however, the regulators of hepatic C1 inhibitor synthesis are completely unknown. In this report, we analyze the regulation of C1INH synthesis by hepatocyte stimulating factors in human hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. Interleukin-6 and interferon gamma increase C1INH production in both hepatoma cells and hepatocytes. These cytokines stimulate de novo synthesis of functional C1INH, acting at a pretranslational level as assessed by Northern blotting. The stimulatory effects of interleukin-6 and interferon gamma on C1INH synthesis are separate and are differentially modulated by interleukin-1. These results establish that hepatic C1INH synthesis is regulated by hepatocyte stimulating factors and reveal novel interactions between these factors.