Genetic-analysis of a kindred with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia - evidence for 2 separate gene defects - one associated with an abnormal apolipoprotein-b species, apolipoprotein-b-37 - and a 2nd associated with low plasma-concentrations of apolipoprotein-b-100
In 1979 Steinberg and colleagues recognized a unique kindred with normotriglyceridemic hypobetalipoproteinemia (1979. J. Clin. Invest. 64:292-301). We have undertaken an intensive reexamination of this kindred and have studied 41 family members in three generations. In this family we document the presence of two distinct apo B alleles associated with low plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) B and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and we trace the inheritance of these two alleles over three generations. One of the alleles resulted in the production of an abnormal, truncated apo B species, apo B-37. The other apo B allele was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of the normal apo B species, apo B-100. H.J.B., the proband, and two of his siblings had both abnormal apo B alleles and were therefore compound heterozygotes for familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. Their average LDL-cholesterol level was 6 +/- 9 mg/dl. All of the offspring of the three compound heterozygotes had hypobetalipoproteinemia, and each had evidence of only one of the abnormal apo B alleles. In the entire kindred, we identified six heterozygotes for familial hypobetalipoproteinemia who had only the abnormal apo B-37 allele and their average LDL cholesterol was 31 +/- 12 mg/dl. We identified 10 heterozygotes who had only the allele for reduced plasma concentrations of apo B-100 and their LDL cholesterol level was 31 +/- 15 mg/dl. Unaffected family members (n = 22) had LDL cholesterol levels of 110 +/- 27 mg/dl. This report describes the first kindred in which two distinct abnormal apo B alleles have been identified, both of which are associated with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia.