The idea of the importance of mounting an inflammatory response for effective immunity is supported by a multiplicity of experimental data. It is also well understood that resolution of inflammation is essential for maintaining the balance between health and disease. When the normal regulatory mechanisms are disturbed, the potential for developing chronic inflammatory diseases is increased. Inflammation is a key element in the response of the innate immune system to a variety of challenges, including those provided by bacterial and viral infection as well as by damaged or dying host cells. Here we review elements of innate immunity that lead to inflammation and some of the host mechanisms that allow for the resolution of the inflammatory responses.