We cloned, expressed, and characterized a hemeprotein from Deinococcus radiodurans (D. radiodurans NO synthase, deiNOS) whose sequence is 34% identical to the oxygenase domain of mammalian NO synthases (NOSoxys). deiNOS was dimeric, bound substrate Arg and cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, and had a normal heme environment, despite its missing N-terminal structures that in NOSoxy bind Zn(2+) and tetrahydrobiopterin and help form an active dimer. The deiNOS heme accepted electrons from a mammalian NOS reductase and generated NO at rates that met or exceeded NOSoxy. Activity required bound tetrahydrobiopterin or tetrahydrofolate and was linked to formation and disappearance of a typical heme-dioxy catalytic intermediate. Thus, bacterial NOS-like proteins are surprisingly similar to mammalian NOSs and broaden our perspective of NO biochemistry and function.