This paper presents experimental data on the determination of the thickness of thylakoid membranes by small-angle neutron scattering. The thylakoids were isolated from spinach chloroplasts. The partial volume of proteins and lipids in the "washed" and "unwashed" membranes was estimated. It is shown that the thickness of thylakoid membranes, measured with this techniques depends on the way the membranes were separated. When isolated thylakoids by the standard method, the membrane thickness amounted to 75 A but if the extracted thylakoids were additionally washed with the isolation medium, the measured thickness was 50 A. In this case a significant decrease in the protein partial volume of the membrane was observed. The obtained results make it possible to explain numerous data on X-ray and small-angle neutron scattering by thylakoid membranes of different origins, proceeding from the assumption that all these membranes have a unified structure and consist of a stable core with a thickness of about 50 A, and layers of peripheral, weakly bound proteins with a thickness which may depends on the nature of the object under investigation and extracting conditions.