Affinity-purified class I proteins in detergent solution can be directly immobilized on plastic by a simple dilution procedure. The immobilized Ag retains its native structure and will trigger specific, TCR-mediated degranulation of cloned CTL. Stimulation of the response is dependent on the surface density of Ag, and displays a critical threshold density below which response does not occur. Individual clones differ with respect to the threshold density required for activation, but these differences are not large. With one exception, the cloned lines examined respond to Ag densities comparable to that found on normal allogeneic cells, and critical threshold densities varied over about a fourfold range. Coimmobilization of alloantigen and nonantigenic class I protein of a different specificity has the effect of decreasing the threshold density of alloantigen required for response to occur. This augmentation is specific for class I, coimmobilized class II protein does not affect responses, and is very likely mediated by Lyt-2 (CD8) interaction with nonpolymorphic determinants on the class I protein. Thus, class I alloantigen is the necessary and sufficient ligand for activation of most allogeneic CTL clones, and both TCR and Lyt-2 interactions contribute to the response. The results described here for effector CTL are compared with those previously found in examining the ligand requirements for activation of precursor CTL.