Growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) increase the activity of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus neurons thought to be involved in controlling the release of growth hormone (GH). The GHS receptor is also found in hypothalamic regions not associated with the release of GH, suggesting that GHSs may influence other hypothalamic systems. This study utilized double-labeling immunocytochemical techniques to examine the hypothalamic actions of a novel nonpeptide GHS, GHS-25. In common with other GHSs, GHS-25 induced significant amounts of Fos immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus of conscious male rats. However, unlike other GHSs, GHS-25 also induced Fos immunoreactivity in the supraoptic nucleus. Double labeling revealed that approx 66% of supraoptic nucleus cells that were Fos positive after the administration of GHS-25 were also immunoreactive for oxytocin. Thus, in addition to its actions on the GH axis, GHS-25 may influence the release of neurohypophyseal hormone.