Deoxyhemoglobin S fibers associate into bundles, or fascicles, that subsequently crystallize by a process of alignment and fusion. We have used electron microscopy to study the formation of fascicles and the changes in fiber packing that occur during the conversion of fascicles to crystals. The first event in crystallization involves fibers forming fascicles that are initially small and poorly ordered but, with time, become progressively larger and more highly ordered. After six to eight hours, the fibers in a fascicle form a crystalline lattice. The three-dimensional unit cell parameters of this lattice are a = 1300 A, b = 365 A, and c = 210 A (the a axis is parallel to the fiber axis). Fibers have an elliptical cross-section whose major and minor axes are 250 A and 185 A, respectively. When projected on to the unit cell vectors, these dimensions are 210 A and 155 A, so the unit cell dimension of 365 A implies that there are two fibers per unit cell. Theoretically, fibers could pair so that each member of the unit cell is oriented in the same direction (parallel) or opposite directions (antiparallel). Fourier transforms of electron micrographs (or models) cannot distinguish between these alternatives, since the two arrangements produce very similar intensity distributions. The orientation of the fibers was determined from cross-sections of the fascicles in which the fibers are seen end-on. In this view the images of the fibers are rotationally blurred because the fibers twist 30 degrees to 40 degrees about their helical axis through the 300 A to 400 A thick section. We have been able to remove the rotational blur from each of the fibers in the unit cell using the procedures described by Carragher et al. The deblurred images of the two fibers in the unit cell are related by mirror symmetry. This relationship means that the fibers are antiparallel. These observations suggest that crystallization of fibers in fascicles is mediated by assembly of the fibers into antiparallel pairs that contain equal numbers of double strands running in each direction.