Several 50 to 70S tumor viral RNAs have previously been shown by electron microscopy to be dimers, with the two monomer subunits joined near their 5' ends. Five additional naturally occurring type C RNA tumor viruses have now been examined: AKR, and endogenous murine ecotropic virus; NZB, an endogenous murine xenotropic virus; and ecotropic and an amphotropic virus isolated from a wild mouse; and the avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). All five 50 to 70S RNAs have similar 5'-to-5' dimer structures. Therefore, the observations support the hypothesis that the dimer linkage is a structural feature common to all type C mammalian viruses. REV is the first example of an avian virus with a clear 5'-to 5' dimer linkage. All of the mammalian viral RNAs, but not REV, showed symmetrically placed loops in each subunit of the dimer. Possible molecular structures and biological functions of the dimer linkages and loops are discussed.