The regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis is not well understood. We screened for genetic polymorphisms that were linked to differences between mouse strains in the numbers of long-term reconstituting HSCs or restricted progenitors in the bone marrow. AKR/J mice had significantly higher frequencies and numbers of both HSCs and restricted progenitors in their bone marrow than C57BL/Ka-Thy-1.1 mice. The C57BL/Ka-Thy-1.1 alleles were partially dominant. A locus on chromosome 17, including the H-2 complex, was significantly linked to the frequency of long-term self-renewing HSCs but showed no evidence of linkage to the frequency of restricted progenitors. Conversely, a chromosome 1 locus exhibited suggestive linkage to restricted progenitor frequencies but was not linked to HSC frequency. This demonstrates that there are distinct genetic determinants of the frequencies of HSCs and restricted progenitors in vivo. The AKR/J chromosome 17 locus was not sufficient to increase HSC frequencies when bred onto a C57BL background. This suggests that to affect HSC frequencies, the product(s) of this locus likely depend on interactions with unlinked modifying loci.