Coronary artery disease is the most prevalent form of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Studies in the last several decades have identified high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol as major risk factors leading to the disease. Human genetic studies have provided significant insight into the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. In the last several years, the genes associated with several rare genetic diseases of lipid metabolism have been revealed. These landmark discoveries that identified mutant ABC cholesterol transporters as the underlying causes of these genetic disorders have paved the way for better understanding of the cellular cholesterol transport process and HDL biogenesis. This summary provides an overview and discussion of the most recent progress that includes molecular mechanism and regulation of cholesterol transport mediated by these ABC transporters.