Population-based candidate gene association analyses are becoming increasingly popular as a result of a greater number of genes and gene polymorphisms having been identified for which some functional information is available. Because many biochemical and physiologic systems impact blood pressure regulation and hypertension susceptibility, many of these identified genes and polymorphisms are candidates for population-level association studies involving blood pressure levels or hypertension status. Recent studies have suggested that the alpha-adducin gene may harbor polymorphisms that influence blood pressure level. Therefore, we embarked on a study to test one such polymorphism in two large US samples: one from an urban African American population (Maywood, IL) and another from a rural white population (Tecumseh, MI). We used both family-based association tests and tests that consider the impact of additional measured factors beyond adducin gene variation on blood pressure levels. We found no evidence for a significant effect of the chosen adducin polymorphism on blood pressure variation in either sample. We also found no association between Adducin genotypes and antihypertensive use. These facts, together with similar findings in companion studies, suggest that the alpha-adducin gene polymorphism does not have a pronounced effect on blood pressure variation in the populations studied. This does not suggest, however, that the alpha-adducin gene does not have a role in blood pressure regulation and hypertension susceptibility.