Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that interrupt polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-endothelial cell adhesion can ameliorate PMN-mediated injury, including burn-induced inflammatory injury, but can also impair PMN-mediated defense against bacterial infection. We report the effects of combined anti-adhesion and antibiotic therapy on local infectious sequelae after subcutaneous Escherichia coli inoculation in rabbits treated with anti-CD18 (60.3) or anti-P-selectin (PB1.3) MAb. Ampicillin or ceftriaxone were administered for 72 hours. PMN emigration was assessed at 24 hours and local infectious sequelae at 7 days. In ampicillin/60.3-treated rabbits, E. coli inoculation resulted in impaired PMN emigration and increased infectious complications, with abscesses forming at a 10,000-fold lower inoculation concentration compared with other MAb-antibiotic treatment groups. We conclude that (1) CD18, but not P-selectin blockade interferes with PMN emigration and host defense to subcutaneous E. coli, and (2) appropriate antibiotic therapy can prevent the local infectious events caused by CD18 inhibition.