A family with von Willebrand disease has been identified in which different members of the same sibship exhibit different abnormalities of von Willebrand factor (vWF). The two most severely affected sibs (bleeding time over 20 min) had abnormalities of vWF similar to those seen in type IIC. The smallest detectable multimer was increased and the triplet structure of individual multimers was replaced with a single band. The largest multimers could not be detected and there were relatively more small multimers than intermediate sized forms. vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) was decreased to 12.5-17% by electroimmunoassay (EIA) and to 3.2-5.5% by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). In the less severely affected sibling (bleeding time 12.5 min) there was a similar relative increase in the smallest detectable multimer. However, the larger multimers were present and the relative concentration of large to small multimers was similar to normal. The triplet structure was altered in that the relative proportion of satellite bands to the central predominant band was decreased. vWF:Ag concentrations were moderately decreased (40-80% by EIA and 25-35% by IRMA). The father and grandfather showed a vWF multimeric pattern similar to the less severely affected sibling but there was no decrease in vWF:Ag concentration and their bleeding times were normal. These observations suggest that the interplay of several genetic factors is responsible for the expression of von Willebrand disease in this family.