The effects of food intake on the P300 (P3) component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) were assessed in two studies. Experiment 1 compared 24 subjects who had not eaten within 6 hours of testing with 24 subjects who had consumed food within 3 hours of testing. P3 target stimulus amplitude was reduced significantly for the subjects who had not eaten relative to those who had eaten, whereas peak P3 latency was only moderately affected by the recency of food consumption over task conditions. In Experiment 2, P3 measurements, memory performance in a word recall task, and blood glucose levels were obtained from 24 subjects at three different times: 1) after a 14-hour fast, 2) 5 min after consuming lunch, and 3) 30 min after consuming lunch. P3 target stimulus amplitude increased initially after food intake and decreased slightly at the third measurement time, while peak P3 latency became somewhat shorter immediately after food intake but then returned to baseline. Recall for recently presented items mimicked the P3 amplitude changes, whereas blood glucose levels increased monotonically across food conditions. The results from both studies suggest that: 1) target stimulus P3 amplitude is affected by the recency of food intake; 2) food-related P3 amplitude changes appear related to memory function; and 3) subjects should eat within several hours before ERPs are acquired to ensure that P3 component measurements reflect values indicative of normal bodily functioning.