We compared gene expression profiles from six donor kidneys prior to surgical manipulation to six kidneys removed after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) and several hours of CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Biopsies were obtained from renal cortex and hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChips. For control kidneys, we identified 1380 genes present on all six samples that had a signal intensity >1,000. Functional classification of these revealed genes for cellular signaling (201; 15%), regulation of transcription (156; 11%), cellular transport (144; 10%) and cellular metabolism (111; 8%). A class comparison between the controls and LDN kidneys yielded 865 differentially expressed genes. Functional classification of the 502 genes differentially upregulated in LDN kidneys identified associations with apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell signaling, regulation of cell growth/proliferation, immune/inflammation, ischemia/stress response and proteolysis/peptidolysis. These data demonstrate an altered renal transcriptome induced by several hours of CO2 pneumoperitoneum and laparoscopic surgery characterized by upregulation of ischemia and injury associated genes.