3611 MSV, a raf oncogene-transducing murine retrovirus, induced fibrosarcomas in newborn mice after a latency of 4 to 8 weeks. In contrast, newly constructed recombinant murine retroviruses carrying the myc oncogene did not induce tumors before greater than or equal to 9 weeks. A combination of both oncogenes in an infectious murine retrovirus induced hematopoietic neoplasms in addition to less prominent fibrosarcomas and pancreatic acinar dysplasia 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation. The hematological neoplasms consisted of immunoblastic lymphomas of T- and B-lineage cells and erythroblastosis. Cell lines from these tumors could be readily established in culture in regular medium, whereas culture of cells from raf oncogene-induced tumors required the addition of interleukin 3. In parallel to the synergistic action of both oncogenes on hematopoietic cells in vivo, we found that raf oncogene-induced transformation of fibroblast cell lines in culture was enhanced by the addition of myc, which by itself did not morphologically transform these permanent cell lines. We conclude that concomitant expression of raf and myc oncogenes in hematopoietic cells and fibroblastic cell lines enhances their respective transforming activities.