We demonstrate the use of self-assembled luminescent semiconductor quantum dot (QD)-peptide bioconjugates for the selective intracellular labeling of several eukaryotic cell lines. A bifunctional oligoarginine cell penetrating peptide (based on the HIV-1 Tat protein motif) bearing a terminal polyhistidine tract was synthesized and used to facilitate the transmembrane delivery of the QD bioconjugates. The polyhistidine sequence allows the peptide to self-assemble onto the QD surface via metal-affinity interactions while the oligoarginine sequence allows specific QD delivery across the cellular membrane and intracellular labeling as compared to nonconjugated QDs. This peptide-driven delivery is concentration-dependent and thus can be titrated. Upon internalization, QDs display a punctate-like staining pattern in which some, but not all, of the QD signal is colocalized within endosomes. The effects of constant versus limited exposure to QD-peptide conjugates on cellular viability are evaluated by a metabolic specific assay, and clear differences in cytotoxicity are observed. The efficacy of using peptides for selective intracellular delivery is highlighted by performing a multicolor QD labeling, where we found that the presence or absence of peptide on the QD surface controls cellular uptake.