This study evaluated electrophysiological (EEG, ERGs), and cognitive (neuropsychological testing) responses in patients with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder (LLPDD, DSM-III-R) and controls over the menstrual cycle. In both groups, the frequency and stability of electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha activity significantly differed over the menstrual cycle. The latency of the P3 components of the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) did not vary as a function of the menstrual cycle, but the P3 latency was found to be later in LLPDD subjects as a group. When the LLPDD subjects were assessed based on family history of alcoholism, it was found that those with alcoholic relatives had more high-frequency alpha (9-12 Hz) in their EEG, lower P3 component amplitudes, and longer P3 component latencies when compared to LLPDD subjects without alcoholic relatives or controls. These data suggest that LLPDD may have persistent neurophysiological correlates, some of which are also in common with risk for alcoholism.