In Azotobacter vinelandii, deletion of the fdxA gene, which encodes ferredoxin I (FdI), leads to activation of the expression of the fpr gene, which encodes NADPH-ferredoxin reductase (FPR). In order to investigate the relationship of these two proteins further, the interactions of the two purified proteins have been examined. AvFdI forms a specific 1:1 cross-linked complex with AvFPR through ionic interactions formed between the Lys residues of FPR and Asp/Glu residues of FdI. The Lys in FPR has been identified as Lys258, a residue that forms a salt bridge with one of the phosphate oxygens of FAD in the absence of FdI. UV-Vis and circular dichroism data show that on binding FdI, the spectrum of the FPR flavin is hyperchromatic and red-shifted, confirming the interaction region close to the FAD. Cytochrome c reductase assays and electron paramagnetic resonance data show that electron transfer between the two proteins is pH-dependent and that the [3Fe-4S]+ cluster of FdI is specifically reduced by NADPH via FPR, suggesting that the [3Fe-4S] cluster is near FAD in the complex. To further investigate the FPR:FdI interaction, the electrostatic potentials for each protein were calculated. Strongly negative regions around the [3Fe-4S] cluster of FdI are electrostatically complementary with a strongly positive region overlaying the FAD of FPR, centered on Lys258. These proposed interactions of FdI with FPR are consistent with cross-linking, peptide mapping, spectroscopic, and electron transfer data and strongly support the suggestion that the two proteins are physiological redox partners.