In the present paper we review immunocytochemical methods for anterograde tracing with the lectin Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), combined PHA-L tracing - neurotransmitter immunocytochemistry, and the immunocytochemical localization of receptor proteins. These methods will be mainly illustrated by examples from tracing- and neurotransmitter studies on the cholinergic basal forebrain system. The morphology of PHA-L labeled neurons strongly resembles that of Golgi impregnated neurons. The complete axonal trajectories and patterns of presynaptic endings of PHA-L labeled neurons are visualized, both for light- and electron microscopic application. PHA-L-tracing can very well be combined with second immunocytochemical labeling procedures. In this way, traced pathways can be studied in their relation to chemically identified fiber systems or target neurons. Application of immunocytochemistry for the localization of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, albeit in its early stages, holds great promise for the near future.