The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) induces cell death in many cell types, but determinants of AEA-induced cell death remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the AEA-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in AEA-induced cell death in the liver. Primary hepatocytes expressed high levels of FAAH and were completely resistant to AEA-induced cell death, whereas primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) expressed low levels of FAAH and were highly sensitive to AEA-induced cell death. Hepatocytes that were pretreated or with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 isolated from FAAH(-/-) mice displayed increased AEA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and were susceptible to AEA-mediated death. Conversely, overexpression of FAAH in HSCs prevented AEA-induced death. Since FAAH inhibition conferred only partial AEA sensitivity in hepatocytes, we analyzed additional factors that might regulate AEA-induced death. Hepatocytes contained significantly higher levels of glutathione (GSH) than HSCs. Glutathione depletion by dl-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine rendered hepatocytes susceptible to AEA-mediated ROS production and cell death, whereas GSH ethyl ester prevented ROS production and cell death in HSCs. FAAH inhibition and GSH depletion had additive effects on AEA-mediated hepatocyte cell death resulting in almost 70% death after 24 h at 50 microm AEA and lowering the threshold for cell death to 500 nm. Following bile duct ligation, FAAH(-/-) mice displayed increased hepatocellular injury, suggesting that FAAH protects hepatocytes from AEA-induced cell death in vivo. In conclusion, FAAH and GSH are determinants of AEA-mediated cell death in the liver.