A 1.6-kilobase cDNA (A-raf) has been isolated from a murine spleen cDNA library which encodes part of a protein related to the raf oncogene. Its amino acid sequence has 85% homology to raf in a central portion of 100 amino acids. In contrast to raf, A-raf shows a highly restricted tissue distribution of expression, with highest levels observed in epididymis, followed by intestine. When incorporated into a retrovirus, the resulting gag-A-raf fusion gene causes transformation in vitro and induces tumors in newborn mice. Thus, A-raf represents a new proto-oncogene. Transformation by A-raf is independent of ras gene function, as is the case for raf and mos but not other oncogenes.