Oligosaccharides are involved in a wide range of biological processes including, for example, bacterial and viral infection, cancer metastasis, the blood-clotting cascade and many other crucial intercellular recognition events. The molecular details of these biological recognition events are, however, not well understood. To express their function, oligosaccharides often occur as glycoconjugates attached to proteins (called glycoproteins) or lipids (called glycolipids) that are often found on the surface of cells. Such physiological relevance has stimulated researchers to make significant advances in oligosaccharide and glycoprotein preparation despite the chemically imposing and polydisperse nature of these molecules. The chemical and Chemoenzymatic methods developed recently have facilitated the synthesis of structurally defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates such that a more thorough understanding of their biological function and potential therapeutic application can be addressed.