Leukosis viruses of seven subgroups were tested for oncogenicity in chickens susceptible to virus infection and to development of lymphoid leukosis (LL) tumors. All subgroup A viruses and the subgroup B virus tested produced a high incidence of LL and other related neoplasms. Viruses of subgroup C and RAV-61 of subgroup F produced a low level of LL. The RAV-50 of subgroup D produced osteopetrosis. In these tests, the viruses of subgroup E and G and one virus of subgroup F were not pathogenic, possibly because infection was not established in the chickens, the chickens were not susceptible to tumor development by these viruses, or the viruses lacked oncogenicity. All temperature-sensitive mutants of Rous sarcoma virus produced sarcomas, but the level varied. One nontransforming mutant produced sarcomas, and the other three tested produced LL. All three mutants that cause cells to grow as colonies in agar produced a high incidence of sarcomas. Thus, sarcoma viruses, by back-mutation, may lose the ability to transform cells in vitro, to make cells grow in agar colonies, or to induce sarcomas in vivo, yet they retain the ability to produce LL. Conversely, it was previously shown that leukosis viruses may be changed into viruses that transform cells in vitro and produce sarcomas in vivo by suitable passage in chicks.