Despite the enormous health risks, people continue to smoke and use tobacco primarily as a result of nicotine addiction. As part of our immunopharmacotherapy research, the effects of active and passive immunizations on acute nicotine-induced locomotor activity in rats were investigated. To this end, rats were immunized with either a NIC-KLH immunoconjugate vaccine designed to elicit an antinicotine immune response, or were administered an antinicotine monoclonal antibody, NIC9D9, prior to a series of nicotine challenges and testing sessions. Vaccinated rats showed a 45% decrease in locomotor activity compared to a 16% decrease in controls. Passive immunization with NIC9D9 resulted in a 66.9% decrease in locomotor activity versus a 3.4% decrease in controls. Consistent with the behavioral data, much less nicotine was found in the brains of immunized rats. The results support the potential clinical value of immunopharmacotherapy for nicotine addiction in the context of tobacco cessation programs.