An enriched environment is known to promote structural changes in the brain and to enhance learning and memory performance in rodents [Hebb, D. O. (1947) Am. Psychol. 2, 306-307]. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent cognitive changes, we have used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze gene expression in the brain. Expression of a large number of genes changes in response to enrichment training, many of which can be linked to neuronal structure, synaptic plasticity, and transmission. A number of these genes may play important roles in modulating learning and memory capacity.