Fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry was used to identify a new small myotoxin from the venom of the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis). FAB mass spectrometry and Edman degradation were used to characterize its structure. This toxin is similar to myotoxin I from C. v. concolor, except that it possesses an additional. C-terminal asparaginyl-alanine. At 45 residues it is the longest known myotoxin a homolog. A myotoxin of 43 residues, identical to myotoxin I from C. v. concolor, was also found. To date no other species has been shown to produce more than one length of myotoxin. The present paper documents 42-, 43-, and 45-residue myotoxins from the venom of a single animal.