Among cxcr3 chemokines, ifn-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kda (cxc chemokine ligand (cxcl) 10) but not monokine induced by ifn-gamma (cxcl9) imprints a pattern for the subsequent development of autoimmune disease
Infection of the pancreas with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus results in rapid and differential expression among CXCR3 chemokines. IFN-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), in contrast with monokine induced by IFN-gamma and IFN-inducible T cell-alpha chemoattractant, is strongly expressed within 24 h postinfection. Blocking of IP-10, but not monokine induced by IFN-gamma, aborts severity of Ag-specific injury of pancreatic beta cells and abrogates type 1 diabetes. Mechanistically, IP-10 blockade impedes the expansion of peripheral Ag-specific T cells and hinders their migration into the pancreas. IP-10 expression was restricted to viruses infecting the pancreas and that are capable of causing diabetes. Hence, virus-induced organ-specific autoimmune diseases may be dependent on virus tropism and its ability to alter the local milieu by selectively inducing chemokines that prepare the infected tissue for the subsequent destruction by the adaptive immune response.