Prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) mutations lead to obesity in humans. However, Pc1 knockout mice do not become obese; in fact, they are runted due to a defect in growth-hormone releasing hormone processing, leading to the speculation that PC1 subserves different functions between mouse and human. Here, we report a novel allele of mouse Pc1 (N222D) that leads to obesity, abnormal proinsulin processing and multiple endocrinological defects. Increased energy intake and a more efficient metabolism contribute to the obesity in Pc1(N222D/N222D) mice. Defective proinsulin processing leads to glucose intolerance, but neither insulin resistance nor diabetes develop despite obesity. The obesity is associated with impaired autocatalytic activation of mature PC1 and reduced hypothalamic alpha-MSH. This is the first characterization of Pc1 mutation in a model organism that mimics human PC1 deficiency.