The field of biomarker discovery made a significant leap over the past few decades. As we enter the Era of the Human Genome, thousands of biomarkers can be identified in a relatively high-throughput fashion. While such magnitude and diversity of biomarkers can be seen as a challenge by itself, the field is being moved forward by new advances in bioinformatics and Systems Biology. Because of the life and death nature of end stage organ failure that transplantation treats, the severe donor organ shortage, and the powerful and toxic drug therapies required for the lifetimes of transplant patients, we envision a future for biomarkers as tools to diagnose disease in its early stages, predict prognosis, suggest treatment options and then assist in the implementation of therapies. By harnessing the power of multiple technologies in parallel makes it possible to discover and then validate the next generation of biomarkers for transplantation. We see the road ahead diverge into two paths: one from biomarkers to diagnosis and therapy and the other to a new level of insight into the complex molecular networks that determine when a healthy state becomes diseased and dysfunctional.