The rat 1B1075 mRNA encodes a 533-residue novel chromogranin/secretogranin-like acidic protein that contains an apparent secretion signal, several pairs of tandem basic residues, and internally repeated sequence elements. 1B1075 transcripts are detected, by blotting and in situ hybridization, at the highest levels in the neocortex, hippocampus, cerebellar cortex, selected pontine and diencephalic nuclei, and presumptive pituitary corticotrophs, at lower levels in specific nuclei in most other brain regions, but in none of several other tissues. Utilizing antisera to several nonoverlapping synthetic peptide fragments of the predicted protein sequence, we detect a brain- and pituitary-specific 57-kDa protein in cellular processes and fiber tracts, generally consistent with axonal transport from the cell bodies identified by in situ hybridization. Ultrastructural studies demonstrate that this protein is a component of intraneuronal vesicles in axons and vesicle-like structures in dendrites. Based on these data, we suggest the name Secretogranin III for the 1B1075 gene product. In related collaborative studies, a mouse deleted for the 1B1075-homologous gene has been produced that should allow assessment of its physiological role.