Adenovirus (Ad) cell entry involves sequential interactions with host cell receptors that mediate attachment (CAR), internalization (alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5), and penetration (alphavbeta5) of the endosomal membrane. These events allow the virus to deliver its genome to the nucleus. While integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 both promote Ad internalization into cells, integrin alphavbeta5 selectively facilitates Ad-mediated membrane permeabilization and endosome rupture. In the experiments reported herein, we demonstrate that the intracellular domain of the integrin beta5 subunit specifically regulates Ad-mediated membrane permeabilization and gene delivery. CS-1 melanoma cells expressing a truncated integrin beta5 or a chimeric (beta5-beta3) cytoplasmic tail (CT) supported normal levels of Ad endocytosis but had reduced Ad-mediated gene delivery and membrane permeabilization relative to cells expressing a wild-type integrin beta5. Thin-section electron microscopy revealed that virion particles were capable of being endocytosed into cells expressing a truncated beta5CT, but they failed to escape cytoplasmic vesicles and translocate to the nucleus. Site-specific mutagenesis studies suggest that a C-terminal TVD motif in the beta5CT plays a major role in Ad membrane penetration.