Subcellular-localization of a protein-kinase required for cell-cycle initiation in saccharomyces-cerevisiae - evidence for an association between the cdc28 gene-product and the insoluble cytoplasmic matrix
The product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene CDC28, a protein kinase required for initiation of the cell division cycle, was localized within yeast cells. By using immunofluorescence methods, the CDC28 product was shown to be primarily cytoplasmic in distribution. The gene product was localized largely to the particulate fraction by differential centrifugation after mechanical disruption in aqueous buffers. The particulate association was not affected by the presence of nonionic detergent. To refine this localization further, a procedure was developed for the preparation of yeast cytoplasmic matrices which resemble the cytoskeletons of vertebrate cells on the basis of methodology, immunochemistry, and gross ultrastructure. A portion of the CDC28 product was found to be tightly associated with these detergent-insoluble cytoplasmic matrices by both immunofluorescence and immunoblotting procedures. Although, for technical reasons, precise quantitation was not possible, it is estimated that a minimum of 2-15% of the total CDC28 product pool is involved in the association with the insoluble matrix. Alcohol dehydrogenase, a soluble cytoplasmic protein, was found not to be associated with the cytoplasmic matrices at any detectable level, whereas, in contrast, approximately 10-40% of the total cellular actin, a bonafide cytoskeletal protein, was present in these structures. The proportion of CDC28 gene product associated with the particulate fraction, and perhaps the insoluble matrix, appears to be substantially decreased during the preparation of spheroplasts.