Human Factor X was isolated from Cohn fraction III and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition, and isoelectric focusing. Two molecular forms with biological activity were observed at isoelectric points of 4.8 and 5.0. Antisera generated to Factor X was monospecific and used to establish an equilibrium competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. This assay was specific for human Factor X and did not cross-react with human prothrombin or bovine Factor X within the sensitivity range of 6-300 ng Factor X antigen/ml. The mean concentration of Factor X based on the antigen was 11.9 mug/ml, whereas concentration values based on coagulant activity was 7.8 mug/ml. This 30% difference in measurement appears to result from the presence of a subpopulation of Factor X molecules devoid of coagulant activity. The radioimmunoassay was used to qualitatively and quantitatively compare purified Factor X to plasmic Factor X obtained from normal, warfarintreated, acquired Factor X-deficient, and congenitaldeficient patients. In all but one case, the Factor X present in these plasmas was immunochemically identical to the purified Factor X and permitted precise quantitation of these abnormal Factor X molecules. Factor X procoagulant activity was analyzed relative to Factor X antigen and the specific activities were used to characterize normal and abnormal Factor X molecules. Reduced Factor X activity in plasmas from warfarin-treated and acquired Factor X-deficient patients was attributed to both decreases in Factor X antigen and decreased function of the Factor X molecules. Congenitally deficient patients, in general, showed a reduction in Factor X antigen in parallel with Factor X procoagulant activities resulting from comparable decreases in specific biological activity of the molecules.