We have combined electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry to study the somatostatin (SS) innervation of neurons in the rat hippocampal slice. After recording the intracellular response of a pyramidal CA1 neuron in vitro to SS, Lucifer Yellow was injected into the cell and the slice fixed and processed for immunohistochemical localization of SS in the vicinity of the recorded neuron. Most pyramidal neurons (70%) responded to SS with a hyperpolarization associated with marked slowing of spontaneous discharge and reduced input resistance. SS-containing elements either crossed, ran parallel or seemingly terminated on the Lucifer Yellow-filled SS-responsive cell. These occurrences of close proximity of apparent pre- and postsynaptic elements were observed in all layers of the CA1 region and may represent synaptic terminations of SS elements on a pyramidal neuron that are likely to elicit membrane hyperpolarizations.